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How to recognize different types of cancer and what changes should you pay attention to?

What is cancer? What are the many types of it? What parts of the body are involved in its pathogenesis? What is the cause of it? What is its exact location? How can you know whether it's easy to heal, tough to cure, or incurable? What are the symptoms and indicators of this illness? What is the therapy technique for it? What should you do to prevent this disease?

You will get the answers to all these questions if you read the following articles.

Cancer is a term used to describe disorders in which aberrant cells divide uncontrollably and spread to other tissues. When DNA is damaged in a normal cell, the cell either fixes the damage or dies. The damaged DNA in cancer cells is not repaired, and the cell does not die as it should. Instead, the cell continues to divide and produce new cells that the body does not require. The aberrant DNA in these new cells is identical to that of the initial cell.

Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death.

There are over 200 types of cancers; most can fit into the following categories:

  • Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
  • Sarcoma: Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue
  • Leukemia: Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood
  • Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
  • Central nervous system cancers: Cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
Not all tumors are cancerous

Tumors can be benign or malignant.

Benign tumors aren’t cancerous. They can often be removed, and, in most cases, they do not come back. Cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tumors are cancerous. Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis.

Cancer types and symptoms
Certain types of cancer are now listed to help identify them more easily. If you feel that the symptoms described are even a little similar to your current problem, visit our clinic to start individual treatment as soon as possible. It is in our common interest to detect it quickly, to prevent cancer, or to stop the spread of cancer that has already developed.

Leukemic diseases can be completely asymptomatic for a long time, and at other times they can start with a wide variety of symptoms. The symptoms of the disease are partly due to the inability of leukemic cells to function normally in white blood cells, and partly to the fact that leukemic cells proliferating in the bone marrow inhibit the formation of other blood cells.

Leukemic white blood cells are unable to fight off pathogens, bacteria, viruses, etc. that enter the body, so infections and fever occur in leukemics. Red blood cell and platelet formation is often inhibited, so they do not have enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells - a condition called anemia. Because of this, the patient is pale, feels weak, and extremely tired. And because of the inadequate number of platelets, leukemia patients bleed more persistently after an injury.

The most common symptoms seen in leukemia are fever, chills, flu-like symptoms, weakness, tiredness, susceptibility to infections, appetite and / or weight loss, enlarged, sensitive lymph nodes, spleen and liver, bleeding, vulnerability, small patchy skin bleeding. Other common symptoms include inflammation and bleeding of the gums, night sweats, and bone and joint pain.

In order to determine whether a patient with a variety of complaints is directed by his or her doctor to determine whether leukemia is indeed the cause of the complaints, a very thorough examination of the patient is required.

Blood counts, which determine the number of red blood cells and various white blood cells in the blood, are also part of the test. The blood is also smeared and examined microscopically. In doing so, any abnormal leukemia white blood cells that may be present can be recognized.

In case of suspected leukemia, examination of the bone marrow is also part of the examination. In this case, the doctor draws bone marrow from the sternum or pelvis through a needle attached to a syringe, which is then examined microscopically.

If a blood count and bone marrow test confirms the presence of leukemia, the doctor will continue to work to determine the extent, exact type, and stage of the disease, because knowledge of it is essential to developing the right therapeutic plan.


The main symptom of most types of bone cancer is pain, swelling, possibly redness in the affected region. The process that spreads to the joint can restrict the movement of the joint. It is a special phenomenon that the pain often increases at night, at rest. Sometimes the tumor is not accompanied by pain at all for a long time, only the suspicious tissue growth draws attention to it. If the tumor destroys the bone stock, the dangerously weakened bone may also break under minor mechanical impact.


The symptoms caused by a brain tumor depend on the size, location, and rate of tumor growth. A slow-growing tumor can be asymptomatic even at relatively large sizes.

The following symptoms may be suspected:
  • recent headache or a change in the nature of the headache;
  • gradually worsening, more frequent headache;
  • unreasonable nausea and vomiting;
  • visual disturbances such as blurred vision, double vision, loss of vision;
  • weakness, numbness, numbness of a limb;
  • imbalance;
  • speech disorder;
  • a change in personality or behavior
  • the appearance of epileptic seizures, particularly in patients who have not previously had such a disease
  • hearing loss
  • hormonal (endocrine) disorders
  • concentration and memory impairment;
  • drowsiness.

Risk factors for developing cervical cancer include unprotected sex, alternation of sexual partners, overweight, smoking, twin pregnancies, oral contraceptive pills, but the role of genetics is not negligible.

Cervical cancer is very difficult to detect in the first period because it has no particular symptoms, only if the tumor has already spread to the bladder, liver, intestines or even the lungs. However, it is worth paying attention to certain signs, and if we experience these in ourselves, be sure to visit our doctor! Don’t panic, symptoms can’t just indicate a tumor.

  • abnormal bleeding
  • unusual vaginal discharge
  • pelvic pain
  • leg swelling and leg pain
  • weight loss and exhaustion.

Skin tumors are a relatively infrequent malignancy in India, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers.The initial reports had an excess of superficial cancers that were easy to diagnose, and several unique types of skin cancer were also described. These included:

  • cheek cancer (caused by a betel nut–tobacco mix kept in the buccal sulcus),
  • penile cancer (attributed to poor penile hygiene in uncircumcised men),
  • scalp cancers (attributed to frequent tonsuring of the scalp),
  • kangri cancer (caused by the kangri pot)

The kangri pot is a traditional device that holds a smoldering coal between the legs or in touch with the abdomen to keep a person warm during the chilly winter months. There were almost a dozen case series from Srinagar, Kashmir, between 1880 and 1910.

  • dhoti cancer of the waist (caused by the dhoti, a loin cloth that is tied tightly around the waist)

Traditional tightly worn clothes such as "sari" and "salwaar-kameez" can cause drawstring dermatitis, which is a type of frictional dermatitis. Candida, dermatophytes, and bacterial infections are more likely in the tropics because to chronic friction, sweating, and the humid atmosphere. Squamous cell cancer is a rare occurrence. The problem can be avoided by losing weight and loosening the drawstrings, especially in people who are prone to developing koebnerizing circumstances. The method of rehashed injury over a long time and ensuing impedances with the recuperating handle may be the reason for harmful change. In urban region, the wellbeing cognizant person is provoke in counseling a pro and gets opportune healthcare hence stopping the movement of the infection early.

Chronic irritation of the epithelium or mucosa by thermal, physical, or chemical agents was hypothesized to cause these cancers. Most of these unique cancers have almost disappeared from India. Unfortunately, the habit of betel nut and tobacco chewing has increased all over India, and consequently, cheek and oral cancers are now among the top three cancers in most parts of India.


What are the symptoms of colon cancer? At an early stage, colon cancer does not yet cause symptoms, but later, depending on the location of the tumor, several symptoms can be expected. The most common early symptoms of colon cancer are diarrhea and constipation, as well as bloody stools. For early colon cancers operated on at an early stage, even complete cure can be achieved.

Colon cancer and rectal cancer do not have completely clear symptoms, but in general we can talk about typical complaints. The most attention-grabbing symptom is bloody stools, so you should see a doctor right away. What are the differences between the symptoms of the early and more advanced stages of colon cancer? What are the main differences between the symptoms of colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer?

In the early stages, when colon cancer has just begun to develop, the tumor usually does not cause any symptoms yet.

Later, as colon cancer begins to grow and spread, a number of different symptoms may appear. The type of symptoms depends largely on where in the bowel the colon cancer developed:

  • bloody stools
  • slimy stools
  • a lasting change in your bowel movements

You may also have abdominal pain, and a slight feeling of fullness may remain after defecation.

As colon cancer progresses, symptoms may worsen and the following symptoms may occur:

  • stools become more bloody or mucous due to increased tumor bleeding
  • diarrhea may become more frequent and severe, and constipation may become more permanent
  • increasing abdominal pain, persistent feeling of fullness after defecation
  • general malaise, fatigue, weight loss

Although the symptoms of colorectal cancer are essentially similar to those of colorectal cancer, there may be some differences.

Rectal cancer can cause a "foreign body sensation" or a persistent stool stimulation. As a result, however, it is usually recognized earlier than colon cancer.

Bleeding is also a common symptom here, but in contrast to colon cancer, where the stool blood is dark or black, the color of the blood is more bright red than in colorectal cancer. The reason for this is that the blood in this case does not come from the upper but from the lower part of the intestine, so it is still fresh and not darkened.


Prostate cancer is primarily a disease of older men, but it can occur in anyone at any time after the age of forty. The risk of developing cancer increases with age, so it is recommended to examine our prostate every year over the age of forty. The disease will then be recognized in time and will be well treated.

The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown: the disease is not contagious and its development is not related to an individual's sexual activity or to any sexually transmitted diseases he may have previously suffered.


frequent urination, urinary discomfort. Sometimes you turn to the patient's doctor because of sexual disorders or a change in the quality of the sperm, possibly a bloody discoloration. Frequent urination at night occurs, urination is difficult to start, excreted more slowly and in a weaker jet, dripping is experienced at the end of urination. The patient usually feels like he cannot empty his bladder completely - and it really is! Urine begins to stagnate in the bladder, which can lead to superinfection, increased complaints, and painful, burning, bloody urination. The infection is often accompanied by a fever, in very severe cases it can even cause kidney inflammation or kidney failure.

Gall bladder

Women are three times more likely to get gallbladder cancer than men. Typically a disease of old age: more than 70 percent of patients are older than 60 years.

Anorexia, dull, insecure abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, and sensitivity to certain foods or beverages may be typical. Patients lose weight unexplained for other reasons. Symptoms may resemble gallstone cramps (spasmodic pain under the right rib arch), although these are relatively rare. Convulsions may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and a transient yellow discoloration of the skin. Persistent jaundice can also occur if it blocks the flow of bile into the small intestine due to the location of the tumor, but it can also be a sign of tumor spread.


Abdominal pain, emaciation, and loss of appetite may also be signs of liver cancer, but these symptoms are not yet specific. In most cases, elevated concentrations of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein are also common: in patients with liver cancer, the concentration of this protein can increase up to a hundredfold.

There are several, but by no means just, symptoms associated with liver cancer. Frequent occurrence of unsteady abdominal pain as well as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, emaciation, and unusual tiredness occurred. Occasionally, fever and jaundice may occur.

Patients with cirrhosis should be suspected of developing liver cancer in the event of severe short-term wasting or painful liver pain.


About half of the cancers in the mouth develop on the tongue, a quarter on the lips, while the rest are cancers from the inner surface of the cheeks (jaws), the bottom of the mouth, and the gums.

The vast majority of oral cancers are seen in people over 45 years of age.

Due to the good visibility of the oral cavity, oral cancers can be recognized at an early stage and often even in a pre-cancerous state. Unfortunately, however, since early cancer-related lesions do not cause pain, patients often neglect oral processes and seek medical attention late.

Early detection is provided by regular dental check-ups.

The following lesions should be considered as warning signs, especially if they persist for more than two weeks:

  • an ulcer in any part of the mouth that does not heal;
  • thickening of the cheeks;
  • detection of circumscribed white or red spots on the tongue, oral mucosa or gums;
  • dry mouth or feeling as if something is stuck in our throat;
  • chewing-swallowing difficulties;
  • difficulty moving your jaw or tongue;
  • numbness of the tongue or other areas of the mouth;
  • swelling of the jaw, which makes, for example, wearing a prosthesis uncomfortable or unbearable.

If these lesions do not heal within 10-14 days, it is imperative to consult a doctor who will not discourage further treatments.


Observations show that the risk of breast cancer is greatly raised in the case of a woman whose grandmother, mother, and sister all died of breast cancer.

The average risk of breast cancer is higher than the average risk for women:

  • who started menstruating at the age of 12
  • who went through menopause after 55
  • who are over 30 years old • who have never gone through menopause
  • hormonal birth control was used.

It's crucial to note that breast cancer is typically painless; in fact, the more painful it is, the less likely it is to develop into a malignant tumor.

If you notice discoloration, bleeding, an external lesion, or a lump in your breast, see your doctor immediately.

Even if the patient is not experiencing discomfort, it is critical to consult your doctor as soon as possible.


Unfortunately, pancreatic cancer is rarely recognized in the early stages - symptoms usually only appear when the tumor is already at an advanced stage. What are the most common signs of pancreatic cancer?

The most common symptoms are severe loss of appetite, emaciation, deterioration, nausea, and diarrhea. However, these are all symptoms that can also develop in the case of cancer of other organs.

In addition to the above symptoms, all pancreatic cancers, regardless of their location, develop a high degree of anorexia and weight loss, as well as rapid physical deterioration. However, these are usually late symptoms that occur at a very advanced stage of the cancer.

There is a chance of a cure for pancreatic cancer if it is recognized at its earliest stage.


Symptoms of cervical cancer differ significantly in the early and late stages of the disease. In the early stages, cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic, or vaginal bleeding, runny nose, or pain may occur. An unpleasant-smelling, yellowish vaginal discharge or pain may occur during urination. In contrast, the symptoms of late-stage cervical cancer are much more characteristic.

Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer:

  • constipation, constipation
  • emptying bloody urine
  • incontinence, ie difficulty retaining urine
  • bone pain
  • swelling of one foot
  • swelling of one or both kidneys due to abnormal accumulation of urine
  • The kidney damage just described can also lead to severe low back or back pain
  • loss of appetite and weight
  • feeling tired and lack of energy

It is important that the symptoms may indicate the presence of other diseases, which is why it is important to visit your doctor to get a clearer picture of your health problem.


As with all other cancers, it is important for kidney cancer to be recognized at an early stage. A problem, however, is that kidney cancer causes symptoms relatively late.

The first symptom of kidney cancer is most often hematuria, which can be more or less severe and, depending on the degree, causes varying degrees of pink, reddish discoloration of the urine. In the case of bleeding, of course, you should contact a doctor immediately, who will find out where the bleeding is coming from with a proper examination. However, blood urination does not necessarily mean the presence of kidney cancer; it can also be triggered by a urinary tract infection, kidney stones, and trauma to the kidneys. In any case, bleeding is detected in about 50-90% of cases of kidney cancer.

Another common symptom is low back pain, which can be dull and can be ruptured. And sometimes, as the kidney grows larger, the tumor can become palpable through the skin in the kidney region.

In addition to the former, more common symptoms, especially in the more advanced stages of the tumor, include less common general symptoms such as fever, malaise, weakness, and weight loss.


Lung cancer may be the main cause of persistent dry cough, and in smokers the change in the nature of the cough. A common symptom of lung cancer is even bloody sputum, with which it is recommended to see a doctor immediately. Prolonged and recurrent pneumonia can also be a warning sign.

Lung cancer, like most types of cancer, is also characterized by almost no symptoms at an early stage. For example, pain is not initially associated with lung cancer because there are few pain receptors in the lungs.

Lung cancer is typically detected by a chest x-ray or CT scan.

Symptoms suspected to lung cancer:

  • Persistent cough or change in the nature of the cough (in smokers) - One form of cough is called dry cough, which does not involve expectoration. This may indicate, for example, lung cancer, especially if the treatments commonly used for cough do not bring improvement. The reason for a cough in this case is that the developing tumor is irritating its environment, causing a reflex cough.
  • Bloody sputum - This is also a common symptom of lung cancer caused by the tumor invading the growing airways. The amount of blood leaving with a cough varies. There may be both sputum slightly streaked with blood and sputum containing large amounts of fresh red blood. No matter how much blood you cough up, you should see a doctor right away with this symptom.
  • Recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia - A plain pneumonia can be experienced by anyone - even without any symptoms - so it is not a symptom of lung cancer per se. However, stubborn, difficult-to-heal, and frequent recurrence of pneumonia and bronchitis after treatments may indicate the presence of lung cancer.
  • On the one hand, a growing tumor can compress the airways from the outside, i.e. the main bronchi, the bronchi and the smaller bronchi. Lung cancer can also start to grow inside the airways, narrowing them or closing them completely.
  • In areas of the lung that were previously supplied with air by the airway blocked by the tumor, air exchange may cease. This leads to the classic symptoms of pneumonia (fever, purulent sputum, cough). Thus, in pneumonia caused by lung cancer, it is not an infection but a narrowing of the bronchi that causes inflammation that is permanent over time and recurs regularly due to the presence of the tumor.
  • Pneumonia due to lung cancer can last for 3-4 months or even go away.
  • Persistent chest pain.
Other common symptoms:

Other symptoms that also indicate lung cancer include shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness, and persistent tiredness, weakness, and lack of energy. The progression of lung cancer can be accompanied by sudden weight loss without any cause, or by frequent recurrent respiratory infections.

In advanced lung cancer, the symptoms become much more specific than in earlier stages of the disease:

  • Shoulder pain - Nerves close to the lungs may come under pressure due to the spread of the tumor. This pressure typically results in shoulder pain, but arm and hand pain can also occur.

Lung cancer most commonly metastasizes to the liver, bones, and brain.

  • Metastasis of lung cancer to the liver can cause yellowing of the skin and eyes over time, but it does not necessarily cause symptoms at the time lung cancer is detected.
  • Bone metastases result in bone pain, most commonly in the spine, femur, and ribs.
  • Lung cancer that metastasizes to the brain can cause confusion, blurred vision, unilateral weakness, and epileptic-like seizures.

However, it cannot be stressed enough that by far the most important and dangerous risk factor is smoking, and especially cigarette smoking.


The most common symptom of lymphoma at diagnosis is a painless, swollen lymph node more than 1 cm in diameter. The nodules are most commonly seen in the neck, armpits, and groin areas. These swellings do not cause pain or other symptoms, but in many cases they grow rapidly.

Recurrent, unexplained fever, night sweats, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, dyspnea, cough, and itchy skin may also occur. Lymphoma that develops in the stomach or intestines

can cause abdominal pain, indigestion, or diarrhea. As the disease gets worse, over time, the body becomes less and less able to fight infections.

Many patients with lymphoma have a deteriorating blood count (a decrease in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets).

You should see a doctor if the symptoms described above persist for more than two weeks. In the case of any disease, the earliest possible diagnosis and early treatment are best.


Those who have no children or who have given birth for the first time over the age of 30 have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. Tumors of first-degree relatives also increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

About 80% of ovarian tumors are not cancers but benign tumors. They also lead to ovarian enlargement, so an increase in size alone is not yet a diagnosis.

So what are the symptoms of ovarian cancer? In the early stages, there are usually no symptoms at all or not very characteristic. The symptoms in the more advanced stages of cancer are not spectacular either, and are mainly not pathological. Such symptoms include a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, an unusually early feeling of satiety when eating, other gastrointestinal complaints, pelvic pain. In addition, with a growing tumor or abdominal scatter, urinary incontinence, frequent urination, constipation, and other pressure symptoms caused by the growing tumor may also occur.


Sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. Sarcoma grows in the connective tissue. These tumors can most commonly occur in the arms, muscles, tendons, cartilage, nerves, but also in other areas of the body.

Although there are more than 50 types of sarcomas, they fall into two main groups: soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma or osteosarcoma.

Soft tissue sarcomas are difficult to detect because they can grow anywhere in the body. Most often, the first sign is a painless lump. As the lump gets bigger, it can put pressure on your nerves or muscles, even making breathing uncomfortable. There is no test that finds these tumors before you notice the symptoms.

Osteosarcoma obviously shows early symptoms, including:

  • Pain in the affected bone, which can be worse at night
  • Limp if the sarcoma is in your leg

Detection of stomach cancer in the early stages of the disease is extremely difficult. Often there are no symptoms or uncertainty, and the person concerned does not attach much importance to them.

The most common symptoms are:

  • indigestion
  • burns in the stomach
  • insecure abdominal pain
  • nausea
  • vomit
  • bloating after a meal
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • sometimes bleeding, vomiting of blood, bloody stools

Seek medical attention immediately if symptoms occur! A very careful examination is required to make an accurate diagnosis. It should be noted, however, that these symptoms do not necessarily indicate that you have developed stomach cancer - the symptoms may indicate other illnesses.


In the early stages, esophageal cancer does not cause any complaints either, but later, swallowing difficulties develop (wall obstruction, painful swallowing, vomiting), which can become more and more severe. This is first shown when an individual eats bread, meat or chunks of food, eats raw fruits, vegetables. This phenomenon disappears and then returns, becomes permanent and intensifies. Later, it occurs when eating pasty foods and even liquids. Swallowing them can also be painful and difficult. The patient feels that the swallowed food is stuck, stuck somewhere behind the sternum. With an advanced process, this can indeed happen.


Clinical symptoms characteristic of thyroid cancer include a rapidly growing, painful, or painless thyroid nodule. The sphere is hard and cannot be moved from its surroundings, it is called a fixed sphere. Enlargement of the lymph nodes in the neck is noticeable. In some patients, hoarseness occurs because the tumor spreads to the nerve fiber that innervates the vocal cords and causes paralysis.


In general, the first sign of squamous cell carcinoma in the tongue is a reddish mass like a lesion in the tongue that persists and does not appear to heal over time.

Symptoms of tongue cancer include:

  • redness of the tongue;
  • reddish or white lesions or spots on the mucous membranes of the mouth or tongue;
  • language pain;
  • numbness in the mouth;
  • bleeding the tongue for no reason;
  • sore throat;
  • difficulty chewing or swallowing;
  • difficulty moving the tongue.

These symptoms can be caused by a number of other medical problems that are not cancers and can only be diagnosed by a doctor.


The first symptom is usually a sore throat. The pain often radiates to the affected side ear. Sometimes, due to the spread of the cancer to the lymph node (metastasis, metastasis), a hump develops in the neck, which may be noticeable even before the onset of other symptoms. The doctor can confirm the cancer by microscopic examination of a biopsy tissue sample taken from the tonsils.


Symptoms of cervical cancer differ significantly in the early and late stages of the disease. In the early stages, cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic, or vaginal bleeding, runny nose, or pain may occur. In contrast, the symptoms of late-stage cervical cancer are much more characteristic.

A serious problem in the early detection of cervical cancer is that the disease typically does not cause noticeable symptoms until the tumor has reached a more advanced stage. However, it can take up to 10 to 20 years for cervical cancer to develop, so symptoms usually start too late.

Initial symptoms:

  • unusual bleeding
  • if you feel pain in or around the vagina after sexual intercourse
  • A yellowish vaginal discharge may occur with an unpleasant odor or pain when urinating
Symptoms of advance cervical cancer:
  • constipation, constipation
  • emptying bloody urine
  • incontinence, ie difficulty retaining urine
  • bone pain
  • swelling of one foot
  • swelling of one or both kidneys due to abnormal accumulation of urine
  • The kidney damage just described can also lead to severe low back or back pain
  • loss of appetite and weight
  • feeling tired and lack of energy